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大脑和神经科学

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The British psychologist Kimberley Wilson works in the emergent field of whole body mental health, one of the most astonishing frontiers we are on as a species. Discoveries about the gut microbiome, for example, and the gut-brain axis; the fascinating vagus nerve and the power of the neurotransmitters we hear about in piecemeal ways in discussions around mental health. The phrase “mental health” itself makes less and less sense in light of the wild interactivity we can now see between what we’ve falsely compartmentalized as physical, emotional, mental, even spiritual. And so much of what we’re seeing brings us back to intelligence that has always been in the very words we use — “gut instinct,” for instance. It brings us back to something your grandmother was right about, for reasons she would never have imagined: you are what you eat. There is so much actionable knowledge in the tour of the ecosystem of our bodies that Kimberley Wilson takes us on this hour. This is science that invites us to nourish the brains we need, young and old, to live in this world.

Trabian Shortersis a visionary who has seen and named a task that is necessary for all healing and building, for every vision and plan, whether in a family or a world, to flourish. It’s called Asset Framing — and it works with both new understandings of the brain and an age-old understanding of the real-world power of the words we use, the stories we tell, and the way we name things and people. From everyday social media, to hallowed modes of journalistic, academic, and policy analyses, we have a habit of seeing deficits — and of defining people in need in terms of their problems. This has not only doomed some of our best efforts to failure — it leaves all of us prone to cynicism and hopelessness. What’s exciting is that what Trabian Shorters proposes is not only more effective, it is simple and straightforward to grasp. It is in and of itself dignifying and renewing. The main question you might be asking at the end of this is why, at this advanced stage of our species, it took us so long to learn to asset frame.

The esteemed writer Jane Hirshfield has been a Zen monk and a visiting artist among neuroscientists. She has said this: “It’s my nature to question, to look at the opposite side. I believe that the best writing also does this … It tells us that where there is sorrow, there will be joy; where there is joy, there will be sorrow … The acknowledgement of the fully complex scope of being is why good art thrills … Acknowledging the fullness of things,” she insists, “is our human task.” And that’s the ground Krista meanders with Jane Hirshfield in this conversation: the fullness of things — through the interplay of Zen and science, poetry and ecology — in her life and writing.

What if the future of well-being is about “tipping the scales in the world away from fear and toward love”? And what if it’s a surgeon general of the United States, Dr. Vivek Murthy, who talks this way? Krista draws him out with his friend, the groundbreaking neuroscientist Richard Davidson. Together they carry deep intelligence and vision from the realms of science and public health, expansively understood. They explore all we are learning to help move us forward as a species. This conversation was held as a live Zoom event, sponsored by the Center for Healthy Minds.

克里斯塔(Krista)第一次采访了精神科医生和创伤专家贝塞尔·范德·科尔克The Body Keeps the Scorewas about to be published. She described him then as “an innovator in treating the effects of overwhelming experiences on people and society.” She catches up with him in 2021 — as we are living through one vast overwhelming experience after the other. AndThe Body Keeps the Score现在是大流行世界中最广泛的书籍之一。他的观点是完全独特的,而且实际上非常有用 - 关于我们身体和大脑中发生的事情,以及这种关系如何被切断和恢复。

西方民主国家中嵌入的经典经济理论的假设是,人类几乎总是在理性上行事,并做出逻辑选择,使我们的社会总体上保持平衡。丹尼尔·卡尼曼(Daniel Kahneman)是一名心理学家,他赢得了诺贝尔经济学奖,因为它表明这根本不正确。与这位聪明而人道的学者交谈时,有些清醒的东西 - 但也有帮助,他解释了为什么我们每个人都不是一个计算的方程式。肯定是我们呼吸,我们会矛盾自己并相互混淆。

科学作家兼记者埃里克·万斯(Erik Vance)说,当今的大脑科学家就像古老的天文学家:他们通过重新绘制了我们对自己的头脑中的宇宙的画面来使人类的意识不安。万斯已经调查了故事的治愈能力和“医学剧院”(包括白色外套)。事实证明,让我们感觉更好的事情通常与我们的信念和恐惧更紧密地联系在一起,而不是对某些治疗的功效。实际上,大多数接受试验的药物都无法击败我们不屑一顾的“安慰剂效应”,这实际上无非是大脑超级大国的释放。

神经科学家理查德·戴维森(Richard Davidson)是帮助我们开始在大脑内看到的中心人之一。他的作品阐明了我们所视为分开的事物之间的丰富相互作用:身体,思想,精神,情感,行为和遗传学。理查德(Richard)在生活和教室中运用他所学到的关于传授性格的品质(例如善良和实践爱)的知识。这次现场对话记录在加利福尼亚州科斯塔梅萨的奥兰治县教育部。

The emerging science of implicit bias is one of the most promising fields for animating the human change that makes social change possible. The social psychologist Mahzarin Banaji is one of its primary architects. She understands the mind as a “difference-seeking machine” that helps us order and navigate the overwhelming complexity of reality. But this gift also creates blind spots and biases, as we fill in what we don’t know with the limits of what we do know. This is science that takes our grappling with difference out of the realm of guilt, and into the realm of transformative good.

人类学家海伦·费舍尔(Helen Fisher)探索了我们亲密的激情,化学药品,激素和神经递质的酿造的生物学运作,使爱与性爱的刺激性,有时甚至是危险的领域。在她为Match.com和数以百万计的人看过的TED演讲的研究中,她将科学视为一种娱乐性的,即使令人醒目的镜头,镜头对我们一生中最有意义的遭遇。在这种深入的个人对话中,她展示了如何将这种知识作为智慧和力量形式。

The new field of epigenetics sees that genes can be turned on and off and expressed differently through changes in environment and behavior. Rachel Yehuda is a pioneer in understanding how the effects of stress and trauma can transmit biologically, beyond cataclysmic events, to the next generation. She has studied the children of Holocaust survivors and of pregnant women who survived the 9/11 attacks. But her science is a form of power for flourishing beyond the traumas large and small that mark each of our lives and those of our families and communities.

她的非传统的研究早就表明卫生大会t neuroscience is now revealing: Our experiences are formed by the words and ideas we attach to them. Naming something play rather than work — or exercise rather than labor — can mean the difference between delight and drudgery, fatigue or weight loss. What makes a vacation a vacation is not only a change of scenery, but the fact that we let go of the mindless everyday illusion that we are in control. Ellen Langer says mindfulness is achievable without meditation or yoga. She defines it as “the simple act of actively noticing things.”

“When it comes to moral judgments, we think we are scientists discovering the truth, but actually we are lawyers arguing for positions we arrived at by other means.” The surprising psychology behind morality is at the heart of social psychologist Jonathan Haidt’s research. He explains “liberal” and “conservative” not narrowly or necessarily as political affiliations, but as personality types — ways of moving through the world. His self-described “conservative-hating, religion-hating, secular liberal instincts” have been challenged by his own studies.

A French-born Tibetan Buddhist monk and a central figure in the Dalai Lama’s dialogue with scientists, Matthieu Ricard was dubbed “The Happiest Man in the World” after his brain was imaged. But he resists this label. In his writing and in his life, he explores happiness not as pleasurable feeling but as a way of being that gives you the resources to deal with the ups and downs of life and that encompasses many emotional states, including sadness. We take in Matthieu Ricard’s practical teachings for cultivating inner strength, joy, and direction.

Jean Berko Gleason is a living legend in the field of psycholinguistics — how language emerges, and what it tells us about how we think and who we are. She has helped to illustrate the remarkable ordinary human capacity to begin to speak, and she’s continued to break new ground in exploring what this may teach us about adults as about the children we’re raising. We keep learning about the human gift, as she puts it, to be conscious of ourselves and to comment on that. For her, the exploration of language is a frontier every bit as important and thrilling as exploring outer space or the deep sea.

人类的特征几乎比创造力更令人着迷。现在,很少有领域比神经科学更具动态性。雷克斯·荣格(Rex Jung)是一名神经心理学家,他将两者融合在一起。他正在研究科学的最前沿,探索智力和创造力之间的差异和相互作用。他和他的同事们对谁具有创造力,谁没有。他们看到了创造力与家庭生活,衰老和目的之间实用的,通常是常识的联系。

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